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Citation & Writing: APA Style

Resources and samples for creating the reference page of your research paper with NLM, APA, or AMA Style, plus books, articles, and websites for improving writing skills.

APA Overview

APA Style Examples for References:



Article or Chapter in a Book


Dissertations / Theses

APA Style Basics

For a general overview of APA format, view the Basics of APA Style Tutorial from the American Psychological Association:

APA Reference Format - ARTICLES

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. 

Note: Do not include the issue number if the journal is paginated by volume. Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, and so on throughout the volume.  If pagination starts over with each issue within the volume, then it is paginated by issue.

Example (article in journal paginated by volume):

Ross, S. (2015). Are influential teachers born or can they be taught? Medical Education, 49, 1058-1060.

Example (article in journal paginated by volume with more than seven authors):

Yoo, S., Cho, M., Kim, S., Kim, E., Park, S. M., Kim, K., … Song, M. (2015). Conformance analysis of clinical pathway using electronic health record data. Healthcare Informatics Research, 21(3), 161–166. 

Examples (article in journal paginated by issue):

Hammana, I., Lepanto, L., Poder, T., Bellemare, C., & Ly, M. (2015). Speech recognition in the radiology department: A systematic review. Health Information Management Journal, 44(2), 4-10.

Joyce, B., & Calhoun, E. (2015). Beyond professional development: Breaking boundaries and liberating a learning profession. Journal of Staff Development, 36(6), 42-46.

Example (article located online with DOI):

Lu, J., Hales, A., Rew, D., Keech, M., Fröhlingsdorf, C., Mills-Mullett, A., & Wette, C. (2015). Data mining techniques in health informatics: a case study from breast cancer research. Information Technology in Bio-and Medical Informatics, 9267, 56-70. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-22741-2_6

Example (article located online with URL):

Kiguli, S., Baingana, R., Paina, L., Mafigiri, D., Groves, S., Katende, G., . . . Pariyo, G. (2011). Situational analysis of teaching and learning of medicine and nursing students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 11(1), 1-9. Retrieved from

APA Reference Format - BOOKS

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (edition if other than the 1st ed.). Location: Publisher.

Example (book with one author):

Ferguson, L. R. (2013). Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in functional foods and personalized nutrition. London, England: CRC Press.

Example (book with editors and no author):

Mantas, J., Househ, M., & Hasman, A. (Eds.). (2014). Integrating information technology and management for quality of care. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

Example (book with edition other than the 1st ed.):

Alpers, D. H., Stenson, W. F., & Taylor, B. (2008). Manual of nutritional therapeutics (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (edition if other than the 1st ed., pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Example (chapter in an edited book):

Montgomery, D. P. (2011). Logan basic technique for infants, children, and pregnant women. In A. Anrig & G. Plaugher (Eds.), Pediatric Chiropractic (pp. 1110-1120). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

APA Reference Format - WEBSITES

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://web address

Example (website with an author):

Boodman, S. G. (2015, March 15). How to teach doctors empathy. Retrieved from

Example (website without an author):

Food ingredient formulators use different ways to enhance absorption, bioavailability of curcumin, turmeric. (2015, August 13). Retrieved from


Example (published dissertation or master's thesis):

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Doctoral dissertation/ Master's Thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)

Mitchum, B. C. (2015). Design, development, and implementation of a novel curriculum (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertation Abstracts. (Accession No. B094831)

Example (unpublished dissertation or master's thesis):

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Kinne, D. (2015). Nutrition timing and physical performance. (Unpublished master's thesis). Logan University, Chesterfield, MO.

APA Style Book

The American Psychological Association's publication manual is located in the library's regular books and in reference.  There are also many helpful sources found on the web.