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Citation & Writing: APA Style

Resources and samples for creating the reference page of your research paper with NLM, APA, or AMA Style, plus books, articles, and websites for improving writing skills.

APA Style Book - 7th ed.

The American Psychological Association's publication manual is located in the library's regular books and in reference.  There are also many helpful sources found on the web.

APA Style Basics - 7th ed.

For a general overview of APA format, view the Basics of APA Style Tutorial from the American Psychological Association:

APA Reference Format - ARTICLES - 7th ed.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy

Note: Do not include the issue number if the journal is paginated by volume. Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, and so on throughout the volume.  If pagination starts over with each issue within the volume, then it is paginated by issue.

Example (article in journal):

Ross, S. (2015). Are influential teachers born or can they be taught? Medical Education49(11), 1058-1060. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12830

Example (article in journal, with three to twenty authors):

Yoo, S., Cho, M., Kim, S., Kim, E., Park, S. M., Kim, K., Hwang, H., & Song, M. (2015). Conformance analysis of clinical pathway using electronic health record data. Healthcare Informatics Research21(3), 161–166. https://doi.org/10.4258/hir.2015.21.3.161

Example (article in journal, with more than twenty authors):

Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . .  Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society100(10), 2043-2061. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0270.1

Example (article located online with DOI):

Lu, J., Hales, A., Rew, D., Keech, M., Fröhlingsdorf, C., Mills-Mullett, A., & Wette, C. (2015). Data mining techniques in health informatics: A case study from breast cancer research. Information Technology in Bio-and Medical Informatics, 9267, 56-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22741-2_6

Example (article located online with URL):

Kiguli, S., Baingana, R., Paina, L., Mafigiri, D., Groves, S., Katende, G., . . . Pariyo, G. (2011). Situational analysis of teaching and learning of medicine and nursing students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 11(1), 1-9. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2F1472-698X-11-S1-S3

APA Reference Format - BOOKS - 7th ed.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (edition if other than the 1st ed.). Publisher Name.

Example (book with one author):

Ferguson, L. R. (2013). Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in functional foods and personalized nutrition. CRC Press.

Example (book with editors and no author):

Mantas, J., Househ, M., & Hasman, A. (Eds.). (2014). Integrating information technology and management for quality of care. IOS Press.

Example (book with edition other than the 1st ed.):

Alpers, D. H., Stenson, W. F., & Taylor, B. (2008). Manual of nutritional therapeutics (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 

APA Reference Format - ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK - 7th ed.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (edition if other than the 1st ed., pp. pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Example (chapter in an edited book):

Montgomery, D. P. (2011). Logan basic technique for infants, children, and pregnant women. In A. Anrig & G. Plaugher (Eds.), Pediatric chiropractic (pp. 1110-1120). Wolters Kluwer.

APA Reference Format - WEBSITES - 7th ed.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Example (website with an author):

Boodman, S. G. (2015, March 15). How to teach doctors empathy. The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/03/how-to-teach-doctors-empathy/387784/

Example (website without an author):

Food ingredient formulators use different ways to enhance absorption, bioavailability of curcumin, turmeric. (2015, August 13). News-Medical.net. http://www.news-medical.net/news/20150813/Food-ingredient-formulators-use-different-ways-to-enhance-absorption-bioavailability-of-curcumin-turmeric.aspx

APA Reference Format - DISSERTATIONS & MASTER'S THESES - 7th ed.

Example (published dissertation or master's thesis):

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database or Archive Name.

Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services (Publication No. 3544643) [Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Example (unpublished dissertation or master's thesis):

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master's thesis). Name of Institution Awarding the Degree. 

Kinne, D. (2015). Nutrition timing and physical performance. (Unpublished master's thesis). Logan University.

APA Tutorial

Log in with your Logan credentials to view the following tutorial on APA Style.

Websites - 7th ed.

WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION